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The impact of Corona virus on the kidneys appears to be multifactorial. Prefactors from collateral of COVID19, such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, and diabetes can be seen as grantors for the emerging kidney impairment. It means that accessory conditions are particularly superintended for glomerular damages happening in pathogenesis of COVID19. Around 40% of patients with COVID 19 exhibit symptoms of abnormal kidney function like hematuria or albuminuria. Signs of kidney problems in patients with corona virus infection involve higher levels of protein in the urine & disturbances in blood flow. People with a kidney transplant should take immunosuppressive medicines also known as antirejection medicines. The mechanism of these medicines involves keeping the immune system less active, which results harder to fight infections. Taking medicines in these conditions are crucial. Apart from those thoroughly washing hands, maintaining good hygiene & following the suggestions from their healthcare team are also important to stay away from corona virus. Lesser levels of oxygen in corona virus patients may lead to cause pneumonia.

Renal replacement therapy is a type of therapy that restores the common blood filtering function which is used to perform by kidneys. This renal replacement therapy is commonly performed due to improper working of kidneys, which is referred as kidney failure. It also causes acute and chronic kidney diseases. Renal replacement therapy involves dialysis like hemodialysis also known as peritoneal dialysis, hemodiafiltration and hemofiltration, which are several ways of blood filtration with or without using machines. Kidney transplantation is also coming under renal replacement therapy, which is the subsequent form of replacement in that the damaged old kidney is restored by a healthy donor kidney. Researchers have observed that dialysis is the most common renal replacement therapy used, cannot remunerate for all the functions executed by a kidney. All of these kidney disease treatments are not precisely cures. In the conditions of chronic kidney disease, these are more specifically referred as lifesaving or life extending treatments. Also if chronic kidney disease is treated fine with dialysis and an adaptable graft is start early & is prosperously transplanted, the medical course can be very much favourable, with level of expectancy of life will be many years.

  • Track 2-1Acute kidney insufficiency
  • Track 2-2Chronic renal failure
  • Track 2-3Myasthenia gravis
  • Track 2-4Septic shock

Chronic kidney disease is a referred as damage occurred by decrease in the rate of glomerular filtration & the existence of albuminuria Hypertension is one of the directing causes of chronic kidney diseases because of the harmful effects that enhanced blood pressure has on vasculature of kidney. Durable, unstoppable, high blood pressure escorts to higher intra glomerular pressure & uneven glomerular filtration. Destruction to the glomeruli gives on to enhancement of protein filtration, evolving in irregularly increased contents of protein levels in the urine. Microalbuminuria is the occurrence of tiny levels of albumin present in the urine & is considered as the first symptom of chronic kidney disease. Proteinuria expands as chronic kidney disease develops & is correlated with a penurious prognosis for the pair of kidney disease & chronic kidney diseases. Patients with nondiabetic and diabetic chronic kidney diseases should have an aim that blood pressure goal of less than 130/80mmHg. Managing blood pressure levels and maintaining proteinuria in patients with chronic kidney disease and hypertension is requirement for the control of the advancement of renal disease & the enhancing or augment of cardio vascular disease.

  • Track 3-1Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Track 3-2Aldosterone Antagonists
  • Track 3-3Beta-Blockers

Dialysis carries the when both kidneys have lost their capability to perform their function. Final stage kidney failure happens when the kidneys are capable to perform their normal action only 10-15%. Filtration & purification of blood using a machine referred as Dialysis. Major function that emerges from dialysis is it helps to maintain our body fluids electrolytic balance perfectly when our kidneys failed to perform their function correctly. There are two types of dialysis; they are Haemodialysis, Peritoneal dialysis. Each type of dialysis treatments is having advantages as well as disadvantages. All kidney disorders are not permanent. Dialysis is an artificial process which serves the exact function like kidney until our own kidney settles functional themselves and started to work normally like before. In hemodialysis, a hemodialyzer is used as an artificial kidney which is used to eliminate waste & excessive chemicals present in our blood stream. This process is done by professionals and it is coming under minor surgery to our leg or arm. In peritoneal dialysis cleaning of blood will takes place within the body. There are two major kinds of peritoneal dialysis; Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis & Automated Peritoneal Dialysis.

  • Track 4-1Hypothermia
  • Track 4-2Glomerular filtration rate
  • Track 4-3End stage renal disease (ESRD)
  • Track 4-4Polycystic kidney disease (PKD)

Infection in any part of urinary system which involves urethra, ureters, bladder, and kidney is considered as Urinary tract infections (UTIs). Women are higher risk at urinary tract infections than men. Many women are facing these UTIs repeatedly in their life span. Men will get infected by UTIs in very rare cases in their life time. Microbes are primary cause of infections in urinary tract.  A urinary tract infection is caused by microorganisms. Most of the urinary tract infections are caused by microbes called bacteria. Fungi are also responsible for some of the urinary tract infections. In very rare cases viruses causes infections. Most of the human beings can effect by UTIs. Any region of urinary tract can infect by UTIs. Your urinary tract is made up of urethra, ureters, bladder and kidneys. Urethra and bladder which are in lower tract are mostly infected by these types of infections.  However, in upper tract ureters and kidneys are affected due to UTIs. Although UTIs in upper tract are rarer than others and chances of severity are high. Probability of UTIs is more in women because of shorter urethra and location of urethra is closure to the rectum which gives more chances to bacteria to enter in the urinary system. Antibiotics are used in treatment of UTIs. Use of antibiotics will leads to side effects. These side effects will starts from minor range like rash to very hamful health issues, such as different types of infections, diarrhoea which can lead to severe colon infection and death.

  • Track 5-1Acute pyelonephritis
  • Track 5-2Cystoscopy & Ureteroscopy
  • Track 5-3Simple & Complicated UTI

When the kidneys lose their capability to perform their functions kidney failure happens. Treatment of kidney failure is based on type of it. Failure of kidney developed suddenly is referred as acute kidney failure or over the long term is referred as chronic kidney failure. There are so many conditions, medicines and diseases can form conditions which may lead to chronic & acute kidney diseases. Renal failure is also referred as acute kidney injury which is more commonly convertible than chronic kidney failure. Kidney malfunction like injury, use of medications, dehydration, and blood loss during major surgery are the primary reasons which causes acute kidney failure. Long term disorders such as diabetes or high blood pressure that gradually damages the function of kidney. Electrolyte imbalance and fluid build-up are the major symptoms of decreased kidney function or acute kidney failure. Symptoms involved in chronic kidney disease might not form until very little function of kidney remains. Hyperphosphatemia and anemia are the major possibilities of chronic kidney failure. These difficulties often do not form until kidney malfunction has been there for some time.

  • Track 6-1Hyperkalemia
  • Track 6-2Hemodynamics and blood pressure
  • Track 6-3Glomerulonephritis

Kidney transplantation is a careful cycle to arrange a healthy kidney from a donor who is healthy or diminished contributor into an acceptor whose kidneys are not capable to demonstrating its function appropriately. The relocated kidney assumes control over crafted by the two kidneys that fizzled, so we presently don't require dialysis. During a transfer, the specialist puts the new kidney in our lower abdomen & interfaces the artery & vein of the new kidney to our artery & vein. Frequently, the new kidney will begin making urine when our blood begins coursing through it. However, at times it takes half a month to begin working. At the point when our kidneys lose this filtering capacity, unsafe levels of liquid and waste gather in our body, which can raise our BP and result in kidney end-stage kidney disease nothing but kidney failure. When the kidneys are faled to shiow their function completely End stage renal disease will occur. Regular reasons for end stage kidney disease incorporate Diabetes, persistent, uncontrolled BP, polycystic kidney disease and chronic glomerulonephritis. Individuals with end stage renal infection need to have squander taken out from their circulatory system through a machine called dialysis or a kidney transplant to remain alive.

  • Track 7-1Preemptive kidney transplant
  • Track 7-2Hemolytic uremic syndrome

The field of onconephrology incorporates the expansive range of kidney problems that can emerge in patients with disease. Past malignant growths (cancer) of the kidney, nonrenal cancers are having renal complications, and anticancer treatments, involving chemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted anticancer agents can have unfavorable renal effects, prompting the development of liquid, electrolyte & acid base complications, and also acute & chronic kidney diseases. Besides, renal impairment can modify the excretion & metabolism of anticancer agents, requiring adjustment of dose. A more clear comprehension of malignancies and anticancer treatments that influence the kidney is fundamental to improve quiet consideration and to encourage the advancement of new, nontoxic therapies. Malignant growth the executives have gotten exhaustive and multidisciplinary, and frequently an onconephrologist is remembered for significant focuses to address and exhortation on kidney issues in disease patients. The most well-known type of kidney illness in disease patients is intense kidney injury (AKI) which can ordinarily be because of volume exhaustion from vomiting and loose bowels that happen following chemotherapy or incidentally because of kidney poison levels of chemotherapeutic operators. Less habitually AKI can happen because of impediment to urine stream from tumor or lymph hub broadening. Likewise, disease cells by invading the kidney or myeloma proteins by hastening with in the tubules of the kidney can cause kidney injury.

  • Track 8-1Chemotherapy
  • Track 8-2Thrombotic microangiopathy
  • Track 8-3Renal cell carcinoma

Ordinarily, the advancement of constant kidney disease (CKD) & end stage renal disease (ESRD) rule the status of patient's coagulation. However, acute kidney injury (AKI) is likewise generally seen in the unpredictable settings of critical illness & acute traumatic or careful affront, and these patients may unquestionably turn out to be acute uremic just as enduring other coagulation dysfunction related with their basic illness. This appearing inconsistency is identified with the detectable heterogeneity of renal illness, with intense uremia, the nephrotic syndrome (NS), and chronic kidney disease treated as discrete elements. These hemorrhagic occurrences are related principally with uremia, despite the fact that an away from with the level of uremia (for example blood urea nitrogen level and creatinine clearance) & bleeding presently can't seem to be illustrated. Generally, levels of coursing coagulation factors are ordinary (or thickening factors raised), & there is no prolongation of the prothrombin or fractional thromboplastin times, except if there is an existing together coagulopathy.

  • Track 9-1Haemolytic uremic syndrome
  • Track 9-2Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • Track 9-3Haemodialysis

Renal osteodystrophy is at present characterized as a change of bone morphology in patients who are suffering with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is one proportion of the skeletal segment of the fundamental disorder of chronic kidney disease mineral and bone disorder. The term "renal osteodystrophy" was begat in 1943, 60 years after an affiliation was distinguished between bone disease & kidney failure. Renal osteodystrophy is generally genuine in kids in light of the fact that their bones are as yet developing. The condition eases bone development and causes distortions. One such distortion happens when the legs twist internal toward one another or outward away from one another; this deformation is alluded to as renal rickets. Another significant outcome is short height. Side effects can be found in developing youngsters with renal illness even before they start dialysis. The bone changes from renal osteodystrophy can start numerous prior years indications show up in grown-ups with kidney illness. Consequently, it's known as the "Silent crippler”. The indications of renal osteodystrophy aren't generally found in grown-ups until they have been on dialysis for quite a long while. More seasoned patients and ladies who have experienced menopause are at more serious danger for this illness since they're now powerless against osteoporosis, another bone sickness, even without kidney infection.

  • Track 10-1Osteitis fibrosa
  • Track 10-2Osteomalacia
  • Track 10-3Calcitriol effects on bone in patients

Dent’s Disease also referred as Dent disease is an uncommon X-connected passive condition that influences the proximal renal tubues located in kidney. It is one reason for Fanconi condition, and is portrayed by tubular proteinuria, excessive calcium levels in the urine, development of calcium kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis & chronic kidney failure. Dent’s disease is a disorder of hypophosphataemia, low sub atomic weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, and aminoaciduria. It was first portrayed by Dent and Friedman in 1964 of every two disconnected young men with rickets. The condition is familiar, influencing the two guys and females in equivalent numbers, yet males are more seriously influenced by this disease than females. In males, it will in general present in adolescence or early grown up existence with side effects of rickets, renal calculi or even with renal failure. It is as yet hazy as to precisely why and what extent of victims progress to end stage renal failure (ESRF). The nephrolithiasis related with Dent's Disease as a rule appears as nephrocalcinosis. It is felt that the decrease in renal capacity might be mostly because of the infection and obstacle related with nephrocalcinosis. This in any case, can't be the sole explanation, as certain patients have arrived at ESRF with no proof of it. In renal transfer beneficiaries, there is no repeat of stone disease inside the renal allograft, proposing a natural renal issue.

Polycystic kidney infection (PKD) is the common acquired inherited causing end stage renal failure (ESRF) & records for 8-10% of patients on RRT programs. The significant assortment is an autosomal dominant disorder said to influence 80/100,000 of the populace. The kidneys become gradually extended and contain numerous cysts which are fluid filled. There might be hypertension, abdominal inconvenience, haematuria, or no manifestations by any means. Just about half of people with primary kidney infection changes progress to end stage kidney failure, and those with occurance of mutations in primary kidney disease will in general have milder illness with less and later renal failure. Cysts may not be perceptible by ultrasound until influenced people are in their 20s or considerably later. There may likewise be hepatic cysts & there is additionally an expanded occurrence of subarachnoid drain and some different anomalies. Cysts may drain and get infected, and there is an expanded occurrence of renal stones and urinary tract infections. Hypertension has to be treated as it will be a long lasting issue, and cardiovascular functions are significantly more typical in patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients with chronic kidney disease excel on dialysis and after renal transplantation, however on the off chance that kidney extension is enormous; Nephrectomy is here and there needed to make space for transplantation.

  • Track 12-1Alport syndrome
  • Track 12-2Renal hypoplasia
  • Track 12-3Thin membrane nephropathy

Non-visible haematuria is previously referred as dipstick positive or microscopic. Blood is available in the urine on urinalysis, however not noticeable. Grouping of this sort incorporate symptomatic non visible haematuria, gives related indications, for example renal colic or suprapubic pain and asymptomatic non visible haematuria where haematuria with no related side effects. Visible haematuria is orderly gross or macroscopic haematuria. Blood is noticeable in the urine, shading it pink, brown, or red coloured. Normal causes incorporate urinary tract infections, urinart stones, bladder tumors, urethritis, begnin prostatic hyperopathy & prostate cancer. Urological reasons for haematuria incorporate infection, including cystitis, prostatitis, malignancy, pyelonephritis, including urothelial carcinoma, renal calculi, trauma or late medical procedure, radiation cystitis most ordinarily schistosomiasis. Urinalysis is normally the essential examination in all settings. The presence of nitrites as well as leukocytes on urinalysis may likewise show contamination as an expected fundamental reason.

  • Track 13-1Urothelial carcinoma
  • Track 13-2Flexible cystoscopy

Blood pressure measures the force of blood against the walls of your blood vessels. Blood pressure that remains high over time is called hypertension. Extra fluid in your body increases the amount of fluid in your blood vessels and makes your blood pressure higher. Narrow or clogged blood vessels also raise your blood pressure. High blood pressure makes your heart work harder and, over time, can damage blood vessels throughout your body. If the blood vessels in your kidneys are damaged, they may stop removing wastes and extra fluid from your body. The extra fluid in your blood vessels may then raise blood pressure even more. It's a dangerous cycle. Kidney damage, like hypertension, can be unnoticeable and detected only through medical tests. Blood tests will show whether your kidneys are removing wastes efficiently. Your doctor should order tests to measure your serum creatinine. Having too much creatinine in your blood is a sign that you have kidney damage. The doctor should use the serum creatinine to estimate the main kidney function called glomerular filtration rate, or GFR. Another sign is proteinuria, or protein in your urine. Proteinuria has also been shown to be associated with heart disease and damaged blood vessels.

  • Track 14-1Malignant Hypertension
  • Track 14-2Pulmonary Hypertension

Renal hypertension, likewise called renovascular hypertension, is raised BP (blood pressure) brought about by kidney disease. It can for the most part be constrained by antihypertensives. A few people with renal hypertension can benefit from outside assistance by stenting, angioplasty or surgery on the veins of the kidney. Hypertension influences an expected 10-25 % of the number of inhabitants in the United States. A great many people can be treated with prescription, yet a subset of this gathering 3-8% has hypertension that is brought about by vascular disease, means blood vessel blockage or narrowing in the renal vein. This renovascular infection causes diminished blood stream to the kidney, which brings about fundamental narrowing of the veins, causing an ascent in blood pressure. This hypertension in the renal veins may happen while the systemic blood pressure get normal, make it hard to distinguish. Renal hypertension squeezes the kidney, and is a significant reason for end stage renal infection, otherwise called constant renal sickness, in the older. Vascular disease, otherwise called atherosclerosis, is common in the population, and as the populace ages, the number of individuals with vascular disease will enhance. So too will the number with renovascular hypertension and end stage renal illness. Individuals with end stage renal disease require dialysis or kidney transplantation.

  • Track 15-1Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Track 15-2Myocardial infarction

A hypertensive emergency is an extreme expansion in BP (Blood Pressure) that can prompt a stroke. Extreme hypertension a top number of systolic weight of 180mm of mercury or a base number of diastolic weights of 120 mm Hg can harm blood vessels. The blood vessels become aggravated and may release blood or fluid. Subsequently, the heart will be unable to pump blood successfully. Hypertensive crisis implies pulse is high to the point that organ harm can happen. BP must be diminished quickly to forestall fast approaching organ harm. This is done in an emergency unit of a clinic. If we have been determined to have hypertension, track your blood pressure & medicines. In the event that conceivable during a crisis, having these logs with us can give important data to the clinical group providing treatment. Retinal papilledema as well as fundal bleeds & exudates are another indication of target organ harm. Chest pain may demonstrate heart muscle harm which may advance to myocardial dead tissue or at times aortic dissection, the tearing of the internal mass of the aorta. Cough, breathlessness & the coughing of blood recolored sputum are various indications of pulmonary edema.

Renal artery stenosis is the condition where narrowing of at least one artery that convey blood to our renal arteries located in kidney. Narrowing of the arteries forestalls general measures of oxygen rich blood from arriving at our kidneys. Kidneys need adequate blood stream to assist channel with squandering items and eliminate overabundance liquids. Decreased blood stream to our kidneys may harm kidney tissue and increment blood pressure all through our body. The two primary causes of renal artery stenosis include: Build-up on renal arteries & fibromuscular dysplasia. Over 90% of the time, renal artery stenosis is brought about by atherosclerosis, a cycle where plaque comprised of fats, cholesterol, and different materials develops on the blood vessels walls, including those prompting the kidneys. Rarely, renal artery stenosis can be happened about by a condition known as fibromuscular dyplasia, in which the cells present in the walls of the arteries go through unusual development. All the more regularly found in females and younger individuals, fibromuscular dyplasia is conceivably curable. Renal artery stenosis generally doesn't create particular side effects. Some of the time, the main indication of renal artery stenosis is hypertension that is very difficult to control, alongside compounding of already all around controlled hypertension, or raised pulse that influences different organs in the body.

  • Track 17-1Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Track 17-2Flash pulmonary edema
  • Track 17-3Thickening of Bowman capsule

Nephrotic syndrome comprise of heavy proteinuria, peripheral edema & hypoalbuminemia, frequently with hyperlipidemia. Patients basically present with edema & fatigue, without proof of heart failure or severe liver disease. The diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome is based on various clinical features with finalization of heavy proteinuria & hypoalbuminemia. The patient history & selected diagnostic studies rule out principle secondary causes, involving systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes mellitus & medication adverse effects. Most cases of nephrotic syndrome are appraised primary membranous nephropathy & focal segmental glomerulosclerosis are the most considered histologic subtypes of primary nephrotic syndrome in adults. Significant complications of nephrotic syndrome include venous thrombosis & hyperlipidemia. Diagnosis includes Urine tests: A urinalysis can disclose abnormalities present in urine like more quantities of protein. Blood tests: A blood test can expose tiny levels of the protein albumin & frequent lowered levels of blood protein. Kidney biopsy: Physician might suggest extracting a small sample of kidney tissue for testing.

  • Track 18-1Urinalysis
  • Track 18-2Cholesterol-reducing medications
  • Track 18-3Blood thinners (anticoagulants)

Urinary retention is explicated as the impotence to entirely or artificially empty the bladder. Enduring from urinary retention impels that individual might be face difficulties to start urination, or if individual can able to start urination, he/she can’t completely empty their bladder. There are two common types of urinary retention; they are obstructive & non-obstructive urinary retention. If there is an obstruction like kidney stones, urine cannot flow without disturbance through the urinary track. Non obstructive causes involve a weak bladder muscle & nerve problems that connects with signals present between the brain & the bladder. If the nerves are not functioning properly, the brain may not receive the message that the bladder is completely full. Urinary retention affects both male and female, but it happens more often in males, specifically as they get older. At the age of 80, a man’s chance of having acute urinary retention at least once is over 30 per cent. Anything that prevents the urine flow from urinary bladder can cause acute or chronic urinary retention. A sudden & complete obstruction results acute urinary retention.

  • Track 19-1Prostate enlargement
  • Track 19-2Cytoscopy & Citi scan

Heart disease can affect kidney & cause kidney disease, although kidney disease could also be a cause heart disease. Heart disease is the common cause of death among people who are taking dialysis. When kidneys are not functioning well, they cannot reinforce the remaining parts of body as they should work. This can cause complications for heart. Symptoms will not show by heart until the condition getting worse i.e., heart & blood vessels are critically damaged. The easy way to prevent heart disease is to control the complications that can lead to anaemia, hypertension and complications with calcium & phosphate levels. The heart & the kidneys work relatedly together. When there is a problem with either heart or brain, things can go worse in the other. Heart disease can lead to chronic kidney disease (CKD), & CKD can also lead to heart disease. People who are having heart disease, their heart may not pump blood in the correct way& their heart may become full of blood. This results pressure increases within the main vein of kidneys, which results in a blockage & decreased supply of oxygen rich blood to the kidneys. This can lead to kidney disease.

  • Track 20-1Cardiac Imaging Studies
  • Track 20-2Natriuretic Peptides

An antidiuretic is a drug substance that helps to manage fluid balance in human’s body by reducing urination, opposing diuresis. These effects are opposite to diuretic. The main endogenous antidiuretics are antidiuretic hormone also referred as vasopressin & oxytocin. Both of those are used externally as medications in individuals whose bodies require addition help with fluid balance through suppression of diuresis. There are several other antidiuretic drugs, in their some molecularly nearer to anti diuretic hormone or oxytocin and others not. Antidiuretics decreases urine volume, principally in diabetes insipidus. Antihypertensive therapy helps to prevent the difficulties of hypertension also known as hypertension, such as stroke &myocardial infarction. Reduction of the BP (blood pressure) by 5 mmHg can reduces the risk of stroke by 34% & ischaemic heart disease by 21% & decreases the possibilities of heart failure, dementia & mortality from cardiovascular disease. There are several classes of antihypertensives, which reduce blood pressure by different means. Among the most significant and mostly used medications are calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and angiotensin II receptor antagonists.