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21st International Conference on Nephrology and Hypertension, will be organized around the theme “”

NEPHROLOGISTS CONGRESS-2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in NEPHROLOGISTS CONGRESS-2024

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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) management is a critical topic in nephrology, addressing various aspects of caring for individuals with CKD. This session covers a range of important areas, including CKD staging and diagnosis based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. Discussions also encompass risk factors for CKD development, prevention strategies, and the role of medical treatments in managing CKD-related complications such as hypertension, anemia, mineral metabolism disorders, and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome that complicates the course and worsens the outcome in a significant number of hospitalised patients. Recent advances in clinical and basic research will help with a more accurate definition of this syndrome and in the elucidation of its pathogenesis. Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood's chemical makeup may get out of balance.Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly, usually in less than a few days. Acute kidney failure is most common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need intensive care.

Immunosuppression (IS) is administered to kidney transplant recipients to prevent rejection episodes and loss of the renal allograft. Most centers rely on a triple IS after induction with either interleukin‑2 receptor antibodies or antithymocyte globulin. The most frequently used substances for maintenance IS are glucocorticoids, antimetabolites, mTOR inhibitors (mTORi), calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and the costimulation blocker belatacept. Guidelines recommend a triple combination consisting of CNIs, antimetabolites and corticosteroids for the majority of patients. The long-term risk for malignancy in general is increased in solid organ recipients compared to the general population. Modification of IS may result in reduced risk for non-melanoma skin cancers but results in higher graft rejection rates and in the case of mTORi, deaths. In the case of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) treatment options are reduction of IS, rituximab, chemotherapy, radiation therapy or a combination of these. The optimal protocol has not yet been established and depends on patient age and status, tumor load, laboratory findings, organ functions (heart, kidney, liver) and PTLD subtype. Posttransplantation diabetes mellitus is a frequent complication after kidney transplantation. Tacrolimus more than cyclosporine A.


Renal hypertension (or renovascular hypertension) is high blood pressure caused by the narrowing of your arteries that carry blood to your kidneys. It is also sometimes called renal artery stenosis. Because your kidneys are not getting enough blood, they react by making a hormone that makes your blood pressure rise. Blood pressure is the force of blood against your artery walls as your heart pumps blood through your body. A reading of 120/80 mmHg, or “120 over 80,” is normal. A reading of 140/90 mmHg or above is considered high blood pressure.

Renal hypertension is caused by a part or total bock of the arteries that supply blood to your kidneys. These renal (kidney) arteries carry blood rich in oxygen and nutrients from your heart to your kidneys. If your kidneys do not get enough blood or oxygen, it may be because these renal arteries are narrowed, a condition called renal artery stenosis. Plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium and other substances, builds up inside your arteries and causes them to harden and narrow (stenosis). Plaque can block, either partially or totally, your blood's flow through an artery in the heart, brain, pelvis, legs, arms or kidneys.


Pediatric Nephrology is a specialized field within medicine that focuses on kidney health and diseases in children. This session at nephrology conferences covers a range of topics related to pediatric kidney conditions and their management. Discussions within the pediatric nephrology session often start with congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract, exploring how developmental issues can impact kidney function and structure from birth. The session addresses various pediatric kidney disorders, including glomerular diseases, tubular disorders, and congenital nephrotic syndrome.Renal involvement in systemic diseases, such as lupus or Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is also a significant theme. These discussions emphasize the unique challenges of diagnosing and managing kidney conditions in the context of growing bodies and developing organ systems.Pediatric nephrologists often explore the intricacies of pediatric kidney transplantation, including donor selection, immune system considerations, and post-transplant care. The session also covers the management of acute and chronic kidney diseases in children, with a focus on appropriate interventions, medications, and supportive therapies.


Diabetic Nephropathy, a crucial focus in the realm of nephrology, revolves around understanding and managing kidney damage stemming from diabetes mellitus. This intricate topic involves in-depth discussions regarding the intricate mechanisms that underlie kidney impairment due to sustained high blood sugar levels. Experts explore the pathways of inflammation, oxidative stress, and microvascular alterations that contribute to the gradual deterioration of renal function over time. These conversations delve into the significance of early diagnosis and effective monitoring through markers such as albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to detect diabetic nephropathy at its nascent stages. Additionally, risk factors contributing to its development, such as duration and severity of diabetes, alongside management strategies for preventing its progression, such as tight glucose control and blood pressure management, are central points of dialogue. Through such comprehensive discussions, healthcare professionals gain valuable insights into the intricate relationship between diabetes and kidney health, enabling them to optimize care for individuals at risk or afflicted with diabetic nephropathy.


Renal Pathology plays a pivotal role in nephrology, focusing on the microscopic examination of kidney tissues to unravel the complexities of kidney diseases. This field involves analyzing cellular and structural changes in kidney biopsies to accurately diagnose and classify various renal conditions. Through detailed discussions, experts delve into the microscopic alterations seen in diseases like glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and other renal disorders. By employing techniques such as light microscopy, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy, pathologists and nephrologists uncover distinct patterns of cellular injury, immune complex deposition, and inflammation. These insights guide clinicians in making informed treatment decisions tailored to the specific pathology of each patient. Furthermore, the collaboration between nephrologists, radiologists, and pathologists ensures a comprehensive approach to accurately interpreting renal biopsies, enhancing the overall management and care of patients with kidney diseases

Renal Genetics and Inherited Kidney Disorders are integral areas of focus within nephrology, encompassing the exploration of genetic factors contributing to kidney diseases. This topic delves into the genetic basis of various kidney disorders, shedding light on inherited conditions that impact kidney health.Discussions within this field often begin by unraveling the genetic underpinnings of hereditary kidney diseases. Nephrologists and geneticists explore the role of specific genes and mutations in conditions like polycystic kidney disease, Alport syndrome, and congenital nephrotic syndrome. These insights aid in both understanding disease mechanisms and predicting disease progression in affected individuals.

The "Renal Genetics and Inherited Kidney Disorders" topic also underscores the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration. Nephrologists, geneticists, genetic counselors, and other specialists work together to comprehensively address the medical, genetic, and psychosocial aspects of inherited kidney diseases.

Nutrition and Metabolism in Nephrology is a crucial area of study within the field, focusing on the intricate relationship between dietary choices, metabolism, and kidney health. This topic delves into the impact of nutrition on kidney function and the management of kidney-related disorders.Discussions within this realm often begin by exploring the role of nutrition in preventing and managing kidney diseases. Healthcare professionals delve into dietary recommendations for individuals at risk of or already diagnosed with conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic nephropathy. The session addresses the unique nutritional challenges that individuals with kidney diseases face. Nephrologists and dietitians discuss how impaired kidney function can affect metabolism, leading to issues like electrolyte imbalances and alterations in nutrient absorption. Strategies for addressing these challenges through tailored dietary plans are a significant focus.The impact of nutrition on metabolic health is also explored.

Nephrolithiasis and Urological Disorders are vital components of nephrology, focusing on kidney stone formation and related urological conditions. This area encompasses a comprehensive understanding of factors contributing to kidney stone development, including diet, genetics, hydration, and metabolic anomalies. The topic also addresses various diagnostic approaches, such as imaging techniques and urinary parameter evaluation, to identify stone presence, size, and location.

Management strategies for nephrolithiasis play a significant role, encompassing both conservative measures and advanced interventions. These approaches range from increased fluid intake and dietary modifications to minimize stone recurrence to more complex procedures like extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureteroscopy, and minimally invasive surgery to address larger stones.


Research and Innovations in Nephrology form a dynamic area of focus within the field, exploring advancements and novel approaches to enhance our understanding and management of kidney-related conditions. This topic encompasses the exploration of cutting-edge research, technological breakthroughs, and emerging therapies that hold promise for improving kidney health.

Precision medicine and genomics hold significant promise in nephrology research. The session will encompass discussions on utilizing genetic information to predict disease risk, tailor treatment strategies, and uncover personalized approaches that address the unique characteristics of each patient.


Studying the physiology of the kidney is known as renal physiology (Latin: rns, "kidneys"). The maintenance of acid-base balance, fluid balance, sodium, potassium, and other electrolytes regulation, toxin removal, absorption of glucose, amino acids, and other small molecules, blood pressure control, production of various hormones, including erythropoietin, and vitamin D activation are all included in this.The nephron, the smallest functional unit of the kidney, is the unit of study for a large portion of renal physiology. Each nephron starts with a filtration unit that cleans the blood before it enters the kidney. The filtrate then moves along the length of the nephron, a tubular organ lined with a single layer of specialized cells and encircled by capillaries.


The kidneys perform a variety of physiological tasks in addition to eliminating uremic poisons. They serve to maintain acid-base balance, balance electrolytes and water, create erythropoietin, and are essential for bone and mineral metabolism. Kidneys have various distinct anatomical and ultrastructural properties that enable them to perform these wide-ranging tasks. To detect the make-up of bodily fluids and react to physiologic changes, the various functions also need diverse specialized cells. Some molecules cannot travel via the glomerulus or through the renal tubules, while other molecules are transported into and out of the urine through the media of other cell types. The kidney can be harmed by a wide variety of genetic, hemodynamic, chemical, viral, and autoimmune insults because of its wide spectrum of activities.


Nephrotic lupus: A multisystem, autoimmune connective tissue illness with a wide range of clinical manifestations is systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The gender ratio of those affected is 9:1, and the majority of cases occur between the second and fifth decades of life. The intensity and signs of the disease vary greatly, and it is linked to significant morbidity and early death.

Congestive heart failure: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) accounts for 90% of the more than 1 million annual hospitalizations for congestive heart failure (CHF) . The economic burden of CHF in the United States continues to rise, with annual costs of more than 33.2 billion dollars [60]. Pre-existing or worsening renal failure is commonly associated with ADHF and in fact may precipitate decompensation . The frequent occurrence of combined cardiac and renal dysfunction in CHF, whereby one organ failure


A set of diseases known as dysproteinemias are defined by an excessive synthesis of a monoclonal (M) protein as a result of aberrant clonal growth of plasma cells. An immunoglobulin fragment (light chain or heavy chain) or a whole immunoglobulin can both be this M protein. These conditions are collectively referred to as "dysproteinemias," "paraproteinemias," or "monoclonal gammopathies" and include multiple myeloma, light-chain amyloidosis, monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, and others.